The "property" is the soul. The soul is changeless, timeless, eternal. All the above questions are solved. We are not the body, not the cells, not the thoughts, not the emotions, not the values, not the desires…those all change. I think this kind of philosophical questioning has already been answered…Knobe and others would do well to read and understand the teachings of the great saints of ANCIENT India (Ramakrishna, Vivekananda, Yogananda, Sri Yukteswar, etc), as well as Budhha, Christ, Bhagavad Gita, etc. who already pondered those questions and found the answers. "Be still and know". If you only focus on asking questions outwardly there is no answer…the answers are found by inquiring within in the stillness.